Glacial acrylic acid (GAA) is a clear, colourless liquid with an acrid odour which is miscible with water, alcohols and ethers.It is an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid which will undergo the typical reactions of a carboxylic acid as well as those of a vinyl compound. It is used in the production of polymers and acrylate esters and as a feedstock for chemical syntheses.
Glacial acrylic acid has useful properties such as flexibility, good weathering, adhesion, hardness and resistance to abrasion and oils and as such it is used as an additive in a wide range of products.
Synonyms: 2-Propenoic Acid, Acroleic Acid, Vinyl Formic Acid
Applications of Glacial Acrylic Acid
Glacial acrylic acid is used as an additive in a variety of copolymer-based finishes, coatings, adhesives, inks, lubricants, saturants, and plastics. It is also used in a range of esters for specialist applications such as in water treatment chemicals, drilling fluids, mineral processing chemicals,detergent builders andsuperabsorbents. As a superabsorbent polymer (SAP), it is used in the production of nappies and other sanitary products. It can also be copolymerised with acrylamides, which act as a flocculant in water purification.
Glacial acrylic acid is commonly used in a number of end products such as textile, leather and paper finishes, floor polish, plastics, scale inhibitors, hair styling and finishing products, paints, lacquers, adhesives, vehicle paint, dispersants, saturants and thickeners.
Storage and Handling
Glacial acrylic acid polymerizes readily and is therefore supplied in stabilised form.
Glacial acrylic acid must be stored under air rather than inert gases to prevent spontaneous polymerization. Storage temperature must be between 15°C and 25°C. Provided these storage conditions are properly maintained, the product can be expected to remain stable for a period of one year. Please note, however, that diacrylic acid is formed during storage which may affect performance in some applications.
The product must be stored, handled, distributed and disposed of in strict accordance with national laws and directives, as well as any applicable local regulations. Ensure the container is tightly closed. More detailed information is available in the brochure ‘SAFE HANDLING AND STORAGE OF ACRYLIC ACID’, from the European Basic Acrylic Monomers Manufacturers Association (EBAM).